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123 countries represented. We still get them! It is great that you are taking care to avoid predatory journals before submitting your paper. The more criteria on the list above that are NOT met by the journal you are aiming for, the higher the likelihood that it does not fall into the category of so-called predatory journals. The word “predator” suggests fangs and claws, but unfortunately, predatory journals are not so easy to spot. Predatory journals are scam publishers that charge authors fees upfront, but do not provide the service they promise. What are the exact practices that so-called predatory journals apply? Predatory journals (also called deceptive or scamming journals) are accused of applying poor academic standards and practices in their editorial and peer-review processes. F1000Research, 7, 1001. International Association of Scientific, Technical, & Medical Publishers (STM). Journals listed as emergent do not have an established practice or reputation and should be carefully considered. Here a number of academics came together to try to define what constitutes a predatory journal. Like a wolf in sheep’s clothing, these tricky publications are as threatening as they are clever. This website offers clear advises about how to publish in a reputable journal. Even more unethical! A study by Shen & Björk (2015) revealed a rise of active predatory journals from 1,800 in 2010 to 8,000 in 2016. They were used to create the original Beall’s list and are used now for the updated lists. By default, most predatory journals have at least a few red flags (as listed here) that should warn researchers of the true nature of the journals. JCR recently also introduced a service where if you upload your manuscript, they can tell you which JCR-indexed journals match the topics within your article. < EUR 150). This journal blacklist, based on 52 criteria developed by Beall, was forced to shut down after almost a decade due to increasing threats and political issues. So far so good, but we wondered why they had picked us as potential reviewers. If you receive an email inviting you to submit your work to a journal which you are not familiar with, it is extremely likely that it is from a predatory publisher. #22: The journal’s contact email address is non-professional and non-journal affiliated (e.g. We shall gather and present more information regarding this issue on the coming posts to help the academics to identify and avoid falling into the trap of predatory journals. It has a very low number of published papers and issues so far. (2018). Predatory journals are predatory to authors. Predatory journals could damage the legitimacy of scientific publishing (, 2019) Stop this waste of people, animals and money (Nature, 2017) Predatory publishers: the journals that churn out fake science (The Guardian, 2018) Many academics are eager to publish in worthless journals (The New York Times, 2017) The majority of these predatory journals will take payments without ever publishing the work, while others publish articles without any form of an editorial or peer review process. Their search engine is quite flexible. The Beall's list of predatory publishing contains more than +1000 entries of predatory publishers and journals that cannot be easily searched manually. Nature 495(7442): 433–435. They apply poor ethical procedures by claiming to live-up to the established quality control standards in peer-review, but do so only on a superficial level. Cabell’s Predatory Journal Blacklist: An Updated Review. When good scientists are involved in running a journal, the peer review process is strong and thorough. You don’t want your well-crafted paper based on many hours of hard work to end up abused by a corrupt publisher for their personal gain and thrown in the trash. The Scholarly Kitchen Blog. Thus, this website will work as a proxy for Beall's list of predatory publishing as well as portal for scholars and researchers to report their concerns about any predatory journal or conference. Archived version of “Beall’s List of Predatory Journals and Publishers”. Typically 72h to a very few weeks, which makes it rather unrealistic that a proper peer-review process is going to be applied. The term ‘predatory journal’ was coined by Jeffrey Beall, a librarian at the University of Colorado, who observed and systematically analysed a growing number of exploitative academic journals charging author fees without proper quality-check of the submitted and published papers. They do not publish in nor read this journal. Imagine, what would happen if we accepted the invitation to review – without any qualification to do so? The number of predatory journals and papers published in these journals is continuously growing. The standalone journals list published by Jeffrey Beall might be the most commonly cited in the literature. Andersen, R. 2019. How to avoid predatory journals—a. Straumsheim, C. 2017. These journals quack like ducks but sink like stones. If a journal is indexed by JCR or/and DOAJ, that is usually a very good indicator that the journal is not predatory. To identify a predatory journal, you need to go through the journal's website carefully. Many of these initiatives had the best of intentions to capitalise on the possibility to share research papers on the Internet, but some unfortunately saw it as an opportunity to make financial profit at the expenses of the publishing system. The false academy: predatory publishing in science and bioethics. You should always check whether a journal you want to publish in is telling the truth.If a journal is indexed by JCR or/and DOAJ, that is usually a very good indicator that the journal is not predatory. A cross-sectional comparison. Crackdown on these journals although are somewhat hard to perform as the definition of predatory journals is vague and questionable. Have you ever wondered how to spot a so-called predatory journal? They make academic life more difficult. [N.B: As of 2020, this product has been renamed Predatory Reports.] Please see We want to show you how to avoid falling into the predatory journal trap that only exploits researchers and focuses on profits. A newer and more recent form of predatory journals are the so-called hijacked journals, where predatory journals impersonate t established, legitimate journals and pretend to be the original journal and lure authors in to submit to them. Let’s get a quick overview of the potential issues of misconduct and unethical behaviour that you may find from predatory journals: All the behaviours listed above should give you enough reason to assume that an ethical and respected scholar would not consider publishing in any of these outlets. There can be, for example, new journals with the best of intentions which cannot have a large number of high-quality papers from many well-known authors yet. Predatory journals have a bad reputation for taking your money and then publishing your work, often badly and in a place that few other authors will be able to find, read, or cite your study. Selected publishers, journals but also members of the open-access community had objected against Beall’s understanding of predatory journals. Librarians are trained to spot predatory journals. If you want more help with writing a great journal paper, join Paper Writing Academy. Towards the end of the first decade of the 2000s,  people began to notice the increasing practices of predatory journals. No more ‘Beall’s list’. 177,666 were claimed for 6,403 legitimate journals (96.69% of all reviews). #20: The publisher of the journal is not a member of a recognised professional body that commits to best practices in publishing, e.g. 2015. It can, sometimes, be hard to define what a predatory journal is due to a lack of a global definition, as pointed out so well by Cobey et al. LMU Librarian Publications & Presentations. #15: The journal sends open calls/unsolicited emails to many authors to invite them to submit papers to them. Don’t do it! Your paper eventually will no longer be accessible if the publisher doesn’t have a long-term storage policy. To help, we’ve created a very useful checklist, our Predatory Journal Test that you can consult to find out whether your submission will go to one of these type of journals. the list of criteria for the identification of predatory journals developed by Eriksson & Helgesson (2016) the v.1.1 criteria version for the identification of predatory journals developed by Cabells (a for-profit company) Looking at the full range of these criteria, we only retained those that are: On the above-mentioned Cabell’s Blacklist currently almost 12,000 so-called predatory journals are listed (Andersen 2019). Although the list pertains biomed journals, it can be easily applied to all other topics. 5,501,361 article records. Predatory journals/publishers, also described as "questionable" journals, can be defined as journals that lack discernible scholarship, academic rigor or credibility, and use aggressive practices to recruit authors and editors. They hop like frogs but their butts aren’t watertight. The scope of interest includes non-biomedical subjects alongside biomedical topics. On the above-mentioned Cabell’s Blacklist currently almost 12,000 so-called predatory journals are listed (Andersen 2019). You might get charged an exorbitant rate for publishing your paper. Search by keywords: In the field: Search. It is not very informative and contains factual mistakes and language errors. We can also help you to find a reputable journal in your subject area. These type of journals are not really interested in your paper, – your research, or of high quality. So why would they ask us for a review? Avoiding Predatory Journals – Charlesworth Author Services Quickly, the list grew to several thousand journals and publishers accused of unethical journal publication practices. This is a list of possibly predatory journals.The kernel for this list was extracted from the archive of Beall’s list at will be updated as new information or suggested edits are submitted or found by the maintainers of this site. Nowadays, your inbox or your spam folder might be flooded with requests to submit your paper to any number of these journals. Make sure to search through journals only, unless you want to find an open-access article (see picture below). or A study by Shen & Björk (2015) revealed a rise of active predatory journals from 1,800 in 2010 to 8,000 in 2016. Predatory journals and deceptive publishing practices are a pain! Finally, ask a librarian! Open access publishing has a dark side, the predatory publishers and journals that exist for revenue rather than scholarly activity. An anonymous group started the initiative ‘Stop Predatory Journals’ listing some 1,300 possible predatory journals, based on Beall’s list. Rele, S., Kennedy, M., Blas, N. 2017. Searching the JCR Master List has improved in recent years. BMC Medicine 13: 230. The ace in the hole for questionable journals appears to be the willingness of desperate researchers to accept the bogus information with which they are … Be part of an amazing group of academics from all over the world! Yet, it seems many, particularly, young and inexperienced researchers that feel the pressure to publish papers still fall for these journals. What is a predatory journal? Some common forms of predatory publishing practices include falsely claiming to provide peer review, hiding informatio … Please see the Nature (Journal ) Comment on predatory journals. (2017), the ‘Think, Check, Submit’ initiative and the anonymous initiative Stop Predatory Journals. Manuscripts are requested to be submitted via email. From the multitude of criteria (over 65 items) provided, we made a concise selection for you that should enable you to check yourself. The contact email address is non-professional and non-journal affiliated (e.g., or BMC Medicine 15:28. Don't hesitate to ask for a second opinion. #24: The journal (if it is open access) is not listed on the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ). They can find you very easily. This is where it’s back to the same question: how to identify predatory/fake journals? #13: The Editor-in-Chief of this journal is also the Editor-in-Chief of (many) other journals with widely different subjects. Shamseer, L., Moher, D., Maduekwe, O., Turner, L., Barbour, V., Burch, R.. , J., Galipeau, J., Roberts, J., Shea, B.J. However, if a journal you want to submit your work to, does meet one or several of the above mentioned criteria, it does not mean definitively that it is a predatory journal. Investigating journals: The dark side of publishing. Many predatory journals are claiming they are indexed by DOAJ and JCR Master List, while they are not. 80 languages. European Association of Science Editors (EASE). The fees are typically rather low compared to established, legitimate journals (e.g. #3: The journal defines no clear publication date. Are predatory journals the publishing equivalent of what Donald Trump might call “a bad hombre ”? #16: Communication from the journal includes poor language, spelling mistakes or grammar errors. The Index Copernicus Value is promoted on the website. Potential predatory and legitimate biomedical journals: can you tell the difference? The strength of a journal is reflected in the members of its editorial board. It is not uncommon to find that the journal has published only 2 issues in an entire year. Predatory journals are open access , but their invitation to publish with them does not include the price of publishing, only if you search thoroughly their site you might find the price rate. Since the closing down of Beall’s list, several successor initiatives have appeared ‘Cabell’s International’ offers ‘The Journal Blacklist’ on subscription basis. #5: The aims and scope of the journal are not defined or rather vague. #21: The journal is not indexed in any of the established journal databases such as. #7: The journal requests manuscripts to be submitted via email. Threats of legal cases by some of the publishers he had labelled as ‘predatory’ resulted in Beall taking the list down. The rise and rise of predatory journals. Always make sure that the journal you found has the same website and ISSNas the journal you are looking for. Rele, et al., LMU Librarian Publications & Presentations 40 (2017), Shamseer, et al., BMC Medicine 15:28 (2017), Click here to search JCR master journal list. They offer an instructional video, a checklist similar to the Journal Evaluation Tool and generally lots of good tips for checking the journal’s credibility. Some authors might feel compelled to take the irresistible offer, despite assuming or even knowing that it is a false promise. Beall’s List of Predatory Journals and Publishers, International Association of Scientific, Technical, & Medical Publishers (STM), Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association (OASPA). Finding out you've been the victim of a scam is never fun. 2017. Spotting predatory journals is quite easy in most cases. our colleague asked in a recent commentary.In research just published, we dived in to have a look.. For the unfamiliar, the term “predatory journals” has been used to refer to online-only scholarly publishing entities with murky operations. Aesthetic Surgery Journal 36. A lot of predatory journals find it very hard to attract enough submissions to publish issues consistently. Embarrassment. We never received a response on our message. Publishers Standalone Journals Vanity Press Contact Other Hello. Being aware of the practices of predatory journals is the first step. We looked into the traps and obstacles for you and came up with a set of 25 criteria that can help you to identify unethical or deceptive behaviour in journal publications. Jeffrey Beall, the most renowned, started to set up a list of predatory journals in 2008. You might first be notified – after acceptance of your paper – that you have to pay a fee at all. In 2011, Beall’s list included 18 publishers. Figures are not to scale and have been approximated. Something else that you can do is to run the site content through text-matching tools and find out if the content has been pirated from other sites. We looked through the various available lists of criteria to identify predatory journals: One provided by Beall, Eriksson & Helgesson (2017), Rele et al. #9: The paper titles and abstracts contain errors. Even if the temptation is high, you are harming yourself: Yes, you can get around predatory journals. A publication record in predatory journals is anything but helpful in finding and attracting research grants or academic positions. #6: The journal publishes papers that are far outside the scope of the journal. Due to constant problems with Weebly service, we decided to move to an independent server. Journals claiming to be open access either retain copyright of published research or fail to mention copyright. Many predatory journals are claiming they are indexed by DOAJ and JCR Master List, while they are not. Journal Evaluation Tool is a scoring sheet that anyone can use to determine the credibility of a journal. A good review of the value of this list is available on the Scholarly Kitchen Blog. If your journal appears on this list then there is a good chance it is not predatory. If the journal is in your area of research, you should recognize some of the names on the editorial board. Instructions: first, find the journal’s publisher – it is usually written at the bottom of the journal’s webpage or in the “About” section.Then simply enter the publisher’s name or its URL in the search box above. This means their shares of predatory reviews ranged from one to 25% of all reviews. Follow the simple guide written by the authors to score the journal of your choice.Rele, et al., LMU Librarian Publications & Presentations 40 (2017). Inside academia, Beall had received a lot of recognition for his list and for systematically analysing and identifying predatory journal practices, which many scholars were using to avoid falling into these journals’ traps. Unfortunately, some disreputable journals are launched without finding any highly regarded scientists in the field to serve on the editorial board. The vast majority of scholars either never, or only occasionally submitted reviews for predatory journals to Publons (89.96% and 7.55% of all reviewers, respectively). Papers are also accepted within very short time. A scoping review. If you have published in a respected journal, if you attended a conference or your name and email address come up on projects or other research-related websites, you will be asked to submit, review papers or even to join their editorial boards. Description of the manuscript handling process is lacking. Conditions of research papers. The archived version of Beall’s list is available at Beall’s List of Predatory Journals and Publishers. Many predatory journals will make up an impact factor in an attempt to appear reputable. Authors feel attracted by the promise to get published quickly and are willing to pay for this service. They simply exploit the situation that researchers (in particular young and inexperienced ones), are under pressure to publish in journals. This article helps researchers to: (1) identify some of the commonly used tactics and characteristics of predatory publishing; and (2) avoid falling prey to them. #1: The journal asks for a submission rather than publication fee. This was our personal way of becoming aware of so-called predatory journals and their publishers’ business practices. Read our top tips for avoiding paying money only to be published in a predatory journal. Where not to find journal articles: Predatory journals: One major drawback that has gained traction thanks to the open access movement is the phenomenon of predatory journals. #11: The journal has a very small editorial board or an editorial board that is still to be announced. Eriksson, S.,  Helgesson, G. 2017. For further details on the rise and development of predatory journals see the articles by Allen (2018),  Butler (2013),  Dadkhah & Borchardt (2016), Eriksson & Helgesson (2017), and Straumsheim (2017). Butler, D. 2013. However, a serious criticism of Beall’s list is its reliability. The problem had ballooned into a danger. DOAJ in numbers. Simple Warning Signs That Will Help. Within a very short time, you will know whether you can submit to your journal in mind, or whether you are about to become prey to predatory publishing practices and would be better off going somewhere else. of Potential Predatory Journals and Publishers. Yet, this might be a no-win situation. Always make sure that the journal you found has the same website and ISSN as the journal you are looking for. Searching DOAJ database is quite easy – you just need to enter the journal’s name, ISSN or the journal’s publisher. The email started in a friendly way and invited us to consider reviewing a recently submitted paper to the journal. Shen, C., Björk, B.-C. 2015. Predatory Journals take advantage of authors by asking them to publish for a fee without providing peer-review or editing services. How did they even find us? Knowing how to spot a predatory journal is essential for academics looking to get published. Images are distorted/fuzzy, intended to look like something they are not, or which are unauthorized. The Directory of Open Access Journals. These journals act as predators and consider the authors, often new or inexperienced ones, as their prey and lure them into their traps. Dadkhah, M., Borchardt, G. 2016. 11,341 journals without APC s. 15,615 journals. Any journals which solicit manuscripts by mass-mailing researchers should be avoided; reputable journals generally do not solicit authors to publish with them. If the journal has a narrow focus, then it is an indication that the journal is not predatory, although you should validate this with the other checks you are doing. Information on whether and how journal content will be digitally preserved is absent. #14: The journal has a poor and unprofessional looking website. The journal also receives stronger papers. If so, please sign up to receive our free guides. Clark, J. The names mentioned are not well-known researchers. Cobey, K. D., Lalu, M. M., Skidmore, B., Ahmadzai, N., Grudniewicz, A., & Moher, D. 2018. Journals Articles. #19: The journal requires authors to transfer copyright despite claiming it is open access. #PredatoryJournals, #PredatoryPublishers, #JournalPaper, #DeceptiveJournals, #WritingPapers. They seem to be mostly keen on collecting fees from authors in return for what they promise – to publish your paper FAST. University World News, 19 Oct 2018. #8: The journal has a very high acceptance rate of papers. Contact addresses can also be incomplete. Med Health Care and Philos 20: 163., European Association of Science Editors (EASE). #10: The journal claims to be very international but has no or very few papers from well-known or international authors. Journal Evaluation Tool. #17: The journal is not transparent about the editorial policies that they apply. Predatory journals—also called fraudulent, deceptive, or pseudo-journals—are publications that claim to be legitimate scholarly journals but misrepresent their publishing practices. While most predatory journals will probably be covered by Google Scholar your work won't be as visible if it's missing from other research databases. Many webpages list PFJs, for example, Stop Predatory Journals, Cabell’s New Predatory Journal Blacklist, and Beall’s. Allen, R. 2018. You should always check whether a journal you want to publish in is telling the truth. #23: The journal is listed on Beall’s list of predatory journals or any other journal blacklist. We first came into touch with a predatory journal many years ago: In our inbox there was a message from the Editor of an international medical journal. At the end, you don’t have a good publication, you might damage your reputation and certainly waste money. Suddenly, many new publishers came on the market and started their journals as online-only. The number of predatory journals and papers published in these journals is continuously growing. Non-predatory journals tend to have a much more focused scope, as they want to address just single area and not spread themselves too thinly. The website now allows you to search quite flexibly, however it requires a login to view the detailed record of the journal. Therefore, we think it crucial to summarise the main features of these journals for you and how you can identify them. 40. Do you want to write a journal paper? Research papers around the world are increasing exponentially but so are the number of retractions. With over 4,000 predatory journals (according to Cabell’s Blacklist), here are a few things to look out for and signs that give away a bogus journal. —— BEALLSLIST.NET —— BEALL'S LIST OF PREDATORY JOURNALS AND PUBLISHERS. Even if your paper does not get accepted, you will still have to pay the fee. #2: The journal promises a very fast publication process. One can use the criteria used by Jeffrey Beall for determining predatory publishers. What we thought was just an editorial lapse in judgement turned out not to be the exception. In the years to come, we regularly received similar requests from international scientific and academic journals, completely off-topic! #12: The journal does not list contact addresses of editors, editorial board members or the publisher. Predatory journals arose with the onset of the open-access movement. Inside Higher Ed, January 18, 2017. do not apply a standardised peer-review process, may not send your paper to peer-reviewers or may not apply any editing or improvement of them before publishing, publish a high number of low-quality papers, are more likely to publish fake or hoax papers, as they do not identify them as such due to their poor quality control, send spam emails to thousands of researchers asking them to contribute to the journal, list members on editorial boards without those people agreeing or knowing of it, make up names of editorial board members or authors, copy material, design and advertise as established and legitimate journals, may even hijack established journals by setting up journals with identical names and similar websites, make up or fake journal metrics such as impact factors and others, state wrong or misleading information about the size and the location of the publisher. These can still be very decent journals. #17: Predatory journals: How to identify them? Take our Predatory Journal Test including all the criteria listed above. The DOAJ is a kind of whitelist for open access journals as certain criteria must be met in order to be listed. There is no regular publication activity visible. #4: The journal claims or seems to be rather new. Predatory journals-also called fraudulent, deceptive, or pseudo-journals-are publications that claim to be legitimate scholarly journals but misrepresent their publishing practices. We wrote a friendly message back to the Editor to explain that we couldn’t accept reviewing the paper due to lack of expertise. List due to Shamseer, et al., BMC Medicine 15:28 (2017). Hijacked Journals: An Emerging Challenge for Scholarly Publishing. By 2016, that number had grown to 923 publishers. Take your envisioned journal through our Predatory Journal Test and make sure your paper, your money, and your career are in safe hands. The list below is a selection of what we think are the most prominent and easy to spot indicators. (2017), Shamseer et al. The website contains spelling and grammar errors. Beall’s List. ‘Predatory’ open access: A longitudinal study of article volumes and market characteristics. The Article processing/publication charge is very low (e.g., < $150 USD). The journal does not state a fixed number of issues and volumes to be published per year. If you do not, search for publications fr… We all should be aware of these practices, because they pose a threat to the very integrity of the academic ecosystem. #18: The journal claims to have an impact factor despite the fact it is a new journal in which case it cannot have an impact factor yet. Neither of us had any expertise in medical research, certainly not in the specific medical topic of the paper under review. #25: The journal is not read or known by your colleagues. Potential predatory scholarly open‑access publishers. In those cases where it is very difficult to tell them apart, researchers should consult their librarians or fellow-researchers to… Find open access journals & articles.

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